Assistant Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Assistant Professor of Radiation Oncology
We are interested in combining engineering and cancer biology concepts to examine the mechanisms driving tumor recurrence and metastasis. Most studies focus solely on tumors and tumor cells but ignore the contribution of the normal tissues that surround and interact with tumor cells to disease progression. We study the relationship between tumor cells, normal tissues, and the immune system as a means of understanding the microenvironment to determine how each component contributes to metastasis and relapse after therapy. Our laboratory aims to develop bio-inspired hydrogel materials and in vitro tumor- and tissue-on-a-chip models by learning from in vivo mouse models. Specifically, we study: (1) the collateral effect of radiation and surgery of normal tissues on tumor and immune cell migration patterns, (2) the molecular profiles of normal tissues wounded from therapy, and (3) the changes in the biomechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment and surrounding normal tissues following therapy. We will analyze the physical, chemical, and biological cues that influence cancer metastasis and recurrence at the interface of engineering and medicine. These studies will ultimately enable the design of optimized cancer therapeutics.
- Rafat M, Aguilera TA, Vilalta M, Bronsart LL, Soto LA, von Eyben R, Golla MA, Ahrari Y, Melemenidis S, Afghahi A, Jenkins MJ, Kurian AW, Horst KC, Giaccia AJ, Graves EE. Macrophages Promote Circulating Tumor Cell-Mediated Local Recurrence Following Radiation Therapy in Immunosuppressed Patients. Cancer Research. 2018; In Press.
- Vilalta M, Brune JE, Rafat M, Soto LA, Graves EE. The Role of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in Radiation-Induced Tumor Cell Migration. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis. 2018; In Press.
- Rafat M*, Dabagh M*, Heller M, Rabinov J, Stone HA, Randles A, Auguste
DT. Impact of Diversity of Morphological Characteristics and Reynolds number on
Local Hemodynamics in Basilar Aneurysms. AIChE Journal. 2018; 64(7):
2792-2802. *Equal contribution.
- Lartey FM*, Rafat M*, Negahdar M, Malkovskiy AV, Dong X, Sun X, Li M,
Doyle T, Rajadas J, Graves EE, Loo BW Jr, Maxim PG. Dynamic CT Imaging of
Volumetric Changes in Pulmonary Nodules Correlates with Physical Measurements
of Stiffness. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2017; 122(2): 313-318. *Equal contribution.
- Aguilera TA, Rafat M, Castellini L, Shehade H, Kariolis MS, Hui A, Stehr
H, von Eyben R, Jiang D, Ellies LG, Koong AC, Diehn M, Rankin EB, Graves EE,
Giaccia AJ. Reprogramming the Immunologic Microenvironment Through
Radiation and Targeting Axl. Nature Communications. 2016; 7: 13898.
- Rafat M, Ali R, Graves EE. Imaging Radiation Response
in Tumor and Normal Tissue. American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and
Molecular Imaging. 2015; 5(4): 317-332.
- You JO*, Rafat M*, Almeda D, Maldonado N, Guo P, Nabzdyk CS, Chun M,
LoGerfo FW, Hutchinson JW, Pradhan-Nabzdyk LK, Auguste DT. pH-Responsive
Scaffolds Generate a Pro-Healing Response. Biomaterials. 2015; 57:
22-32. *Equal contribution. Highlighted in Materials Today. May 21, 2015.
- Vilalta M, Rafat M, Giaccia AJ, Graves EE. Recruitment of
Circulating Breast Cancer Cells Is Stimulated by Radiotherapy. Cell Reports.
2014; 8(2): 402-409.
- Rafat M, Rotenstein L, Hu J, Auguste DT. Engineered Endothelial Cell
Adhesion via VCAM1 and E-selectin Antibody-Presenting Alginate Hydrogels. Acta
Biomaterialia. 2012; 8(7): 2697-2703.
- Rafat M, Rotenstein L, You JO, Auguste DT. Dual Functionalized PVA
Hydrogels that Adhere Endothelial Cells Synergistically. Biomaterials.
2012; 33(15): 3880-3886.